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Russia, which is becoming an increasing diplomatic challenge for the US, has become the central subject of the US’ plan to quadruple its budget to help European defences in 2017 against Russia’s increasing aggression.

Relations between Russia and US had gone down since the 2014 illegal annexation of Crimea by Russia and its open sponsorship of the separatists.

The Pentagon is to propose a 50 per cent spending in the campaign against the extremist militant group the Islamic State

US Defence Secretary Ash Carter said US forces fighting in the air in Iraq and Syria are having lower numbers of laser-guided missiles and smart bombs.

A planned $1.8 billion (£1.2 billion) is proposed for 2017 to buy 45,000 more of the supplies needed for the air campaign against ISIS.

Carter said:

“We’re taking a strong and balanced approach to deter Russian aggression,” he said. “We haven’t had to worry about this for 25 years, and while I wish it were otherwise, now we do.”

The new allocations will signify the initiative to demonstrate US commitment to NATO allies in Europe as several states have mentioned their increasing concerns regarding Russia’s intentions to increase aggression in the region, particularly in central Asia.

Doctors Without Borders (Medicins Sans Frontieres, MSF) said Europe’s response to the refugee crisis was “a catastrophic failure.” The opening and closing of its borders “in a dangerously capricious manner” had created stress in the passage of many people.

MSF said asylum seekers did not have legal avenues in entering Europe as human smugglers continued to have huge influence despite the continent’s open borders.

The MSF intervened in 2015 as the NGO began their search and rescue operations for lost refugees in the Mediterranean. It has helped bring back 16,113 using three boats.

According to MSF Emergency Coordinator Will Turner “As long as conflicts lead to mass displacements, which in turn overwhelm neighboring countries, people in need of safe haven will reach out to Europe.”

Many European countries had increased controls on refugees coming from Syria, Sudan and Libya. Austria, Sweden and Denmark had introduced border controls, which directly violate the Schengen agreement.

The MSF advised Europe to improve its procedures for receiving refugees, which has become cumbersome and are driving away most refugees seeking refuge.

Millions of Syrians are displaced following the continuing Syrian Civil War. Meanwhile, escalating conflicts in Africa, Sudan and Libya had increased the number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe.

After its Monday sell-off, the Chinese Stock Market continued to tumble on Tuesday. The Shanghai Composite had fallen by 3.11 per cent. However, it retraced back about 0.8 per cent. The Shenzhen Composite opened down by 4.5 per cent. Hong Kong’s Hang Seng Index was down by 0.32 per cent at 21,264.

China had used its new “circuit breakers” linked to the CSI300 index. This would mean a 5 per cent reduction in the CSI300 index would halt trade for 15 minutes. When the index drops by 7 per cent, the market will close for the day.

On Monday, the trade had dipped the CSI300 down by 7 per cent, which suspended the trade for the day. Deutsche Bank estimates that 42 per cent of the 7 per cent loss were mostly financials, property and industrial names.

Circuit breakers are common in both US and China. In the United States, a dip between 7 and 13 per cent against the S&P 500 index halts trading for 15 minutes. If it reaches a 20 per cent mark, it would completely halt trading.

New concerns of a global economic slowdown and increasing tensions in the Middle East reflected on US and European equity markets.

The Select Transport Committee said Chancellor George Osborne only consulted with the insurance industry rather than the victims of motor accidents. The Law Society believes UK’s disadvantaged cannot have access to proper legal counsel with the lower claims amounts.

Chancellor George Osborne announced in his Spending Review that the UK’s insurance industry is losing £2bn to fraudulent and exaggerated injury claims. About £90 is added to a motorist’s insurance premium to address the expense.

Osborne proposed to increase the small claims court’s limit from £1000 to £5000. This would address all complaints, including minor soft tissue injuries.

The Law Society President Jonathan Smithers said many soft tissue injuries in car accidents include facial scarring, which is valued above £5000. This guarantees an unfair disadvantage to insurers, who could call on legal representatives to challenge a claim at any time.

However, the insurance industry finds it more convenient to pay out for the injuries rather than hire legal representatives to probe their numerous claims, according to an insider.

According to Steve Cornforth, a Senior Partner at EAD, Osborne has believed the lie of the “compensation culture”. He said media and the insurance industry itself had hyped the latter.

Type 2 diabetes, which is common among middle-aged men and women worldwide, can be cured by losing weight in the pancreas.

Research shows that about 1 gram of fat in the pancreas is the real reason for the slow insulin production in the body. Losing the amount of fat in the pancreas can almost immediately reverse the illness by introducing proper amounts of insulin in the body.

According to Newcastle University’s Professor Roy Taylor:

“So if you ask how much weight you need to lose to make your diabetes go away, the answer is one gram. But that gram needs to be fat from the pancreas. At present the only way we have to achieve this is by calorie restriction by any means, whether by diet or an operation.

“What is interesting is that regardless of your present body weight and how you lose weight, the critical factor in reversing your Type 2 diabetes is losing that one gram of fat from the pancreas,” he explained.

The study involved 18 obese people with Type 2 diabetes. They were given gastric band surgery and had a restricted diet for eight weeks. Patients aged between 25 and 65 lost about 2.2 stone, about 13 per cent of their body weight. They lost about 0.6 grams of fat from their pancreas in the process, allowing it to restore insulin levels in the body to normal.

An anonymous phone call is under investigation as it tipped a bomb threat that halted the flight of Air France passenger planes for investigation.

Flight AF055 from Washington and AF065 from Los Angeles heading towards Paris’ Charles de Gaulle when Air France received a threat from an anonymous caller that claims to have planted a bomb in the airline.

According to Air France, it grounded the flights immediately due to the following reasons:

“As a precautionary measure and to conduct all necessary security checks, Air France, applying their safety regulations in force, decided to request the landings of both aircraft.”

Hannover Game Threats

Aside from Air France’s bomb threat, a game scheduled between Germany and Netherlands cancelled a hour before the game after authorities received a call that indicated a bombing device was planted inside the Hannover Stadium.

According to police, they found substantial evidence to cancel the game.

The game was to a symbol of good relations between the two European countries and a symbol of Germany and Netherland’s strength against terrorists, with German Chancellor Angela Merkel and her staff attending the game.

The players from the Netherlands had their buses turn around after the announcement. Meanwhile, the Chancellor had returned to Berlin a few minutes after the bomb threat was made.

China’s disappointing economic performance in the last three years spawned numerous attempts by investors to pull out of the country. A mix of disappointment against the Chinese government’s management and disastrous years had motivated many to pull out.

However, many saw the returning investors coming out of China and put up their own nets to catch the running investors. Asia’s IPOs and assets show through upcoming deals reviews that they are winning an estimated £11.07 billion out of China’s poor performance and into their IPOs. This was just in the last two months alone.

According to Co-Head of Asia Pacific Equity Capital Markets at Morgan Stanley in Hong Kong Mille Cheng, everything is marketed with the context of slower growth.

Cautionary, Wary Investors

Despite the appealing growth deals coming from China, many investors are still playing safe with their investments. Many analysts have noted obvious risk minimisation.

Investors are also aware of banker cautions about valuations for 2016 staying low even for firms with decent prospects in manufacturing and export trade. This is also due to China’s slowing economy affecting plenty of potential IPOs with its influence.

Along with investors , fund managers continue to choose their investors to ensure profit and improve their respective asset’s price-to-earnings multiples.

Paralympian Oscar Pistorious had served less than a year in South Africa’s prison and he will continue his five-year sentence under house arrest in his uncle’s house. The court decision is now under appeal as many South African advocacy groups express disappointment in the decision.

Pistorious’ laywer Brian Webber said Pistorious shoud be released on August 21. The paralympian was released from prison on Monday and will remain under house arrest until 2019.

Appeal

An appeal by prosecutors disappointed by the decision could see Pistorious return to jail instead of house arrest for the remainder of his sentence.

Pistorious was convicted of culpable homicide last year after shooting Model Reeva Steenkamp in his Praetoria residence. He maintained he thought Steenkamp was an intruder and did not intend to kill her as he shot through the door of his residence.

He will stay with his uncle, Arnold Pistorious, in Waterkloof, Praetoria. The luxury estate includes a swimming pool and has three storeys.

Disappointment

Despite his semi-free lifestyle, Pistorious will undertake community service and psychotherapy sessions as per court requirement.

Meanwhile, the Steenkamp family expressed their disappointment. Advocacy groups, including the ANC Women’s League, said:

“We pin our hopes on the SCA to repeal the judgment and that Oscar must serve a sentence that would bring him back a changed man and an advocate for women’s rights in future.”

Brazil’s exported goods have fallen in price but has increased local product prices due to recession. The strengthening currency puts the Brazilian economy to the test with higher prices paid for electricity and gasoline.

Analysts said the Dilma Government’s idea to remove the gas price ceiling and subsidisation of electricity led to this inevitable result, increasing inflation by 9 per cent and a high interest rate of 14.25 per cent.

A Sudden Jerking Reaction

Senior International Economist At PNC Financial Bill Adams said the sudden changes in input and output prices introduced a jerking, shocking movement to the Brazillian economy.

The reduction in the amount of output for Brazil introduced a negative supply shock, sending the local prices skyrocketing. Adams said the recession is “deep and sustained.”

Politicians and Natural Resources

According to analysts, external forces, such as Chinese investors demanding greater quantities of Brazilian ore or the value of the US dollar play huge roles for Brazil’s inflation and investor outlook. Investors would find plenty to invest in Brazil but only few to work with effectively given the outdated business outlook of the government.

This is the trouble caused by Brasilian Politicians, whose actions may contract by 3 per cent Brazil’s real GDP.

For East Sussex NHS, new measures overseen by the Care Quality Commission mean their efforts to improve their services have completely failed. The East Sussex NHS is rated inadequate.

The CQC recommends having an unannounced follow-up inspection on March because the inadequate recommendations have not been followed by the hospital. Chief Hospital Inspector Professor Sir Mike Richards said the trust had lacked improvement on “underlying cultural issues” within the East Sussex Service. He said this has been apparent for quite some time.

According to East Sussex NHS Acting Chief Executive Richard Sunley, they apologise to have let down people who used their services and the staff and colleagues for not bringing the proper healthcare standard East Sussex deserves.

East Sussex NHS lacked quality in terms of safety and leadership. The March report indicated “staff bullying” and a great disconnect between the trust board and the staff.

Meanwhile, all care services were rated as good with staff providing the highest quality of healthcare for patients. They are treated with compassion, dignity and respect.

The CQC said staff-management relationships play a huge role in providing top medical care. Many superiors tend to ‘step-over’ underlings for minor discrepancies. Patient confidentiality comes a close second to the top drawer of failures by the hospital.